I.      Transition from Lysistrata—make love not war

A.    apragmon ,  p1. apragmones (adj.); apragmosune (abstract  noun)

1.     Lit. 'one who does not conduct business': a person who refrains from taking part in public affairs. It can be either a positive or a negative characteristic, depending on the attitude of the speaker ('philosophical contemplation' or 'political irresponsibility'). For the opposite characteristic, see sv. polupragmon .

B.    otium/negotium

C.    vita triplex

II.    Pastoral

A.    Word “pastoral “and  the way its used here: “not  terrifying or warlike but pastoral”  61  epic vs. pastoral;

B.    Goats and sheep are harmless and picturesque; petting farm

C.    Outside the city  p 19

D.   Back to the land movement and pastoral—the sixties and hippies—tied in with make love not war

1.     http://cla.calpoly.edu/~smarx/Publications/Shepherd/shepherd.html

2.     http://cla.calpoly.edu/~smarx/Publications/Shepherd/Country.mp3

E.    natural cycles—seasonal structure

F.    love of landscape

1.     Description of nature—pretty and eroticized—the cave  p. 21

2.    Children are given their herding jobs—described in detail  23  and love animals more than most because they knew of their origins

3.     Description of Spring—reverdie—gambolling of lambs, etc—children follow example of birds—they sing, of lambs—they dance, of bees—they gather flowers

G.   the low and the high

1.     Eumaios, the swineherd and the master

2.     Internal nobility—high class, hidden by circumstance

H.   the rustic community

1.     Fruit season festival—the vintage

a)     winepresses, details of vines and cultivation 43 

b)    “Everyone gave a helping hand” D and C help  [country community idyll]

I.      the arts, singing contest—panpipes

1.     http://www.lugodoc.demon.co.uk/pan.htm

2.     http://www.panflutejedi.com/syrinximage.html

3.     http://www.panflutejedi.com

4.     The whole crowd comes to party in the field and then fall asleep.   63  Next day they sacrifice leader of herd to Pan.  Pastoral offering to pastoral god.  Old folks talk about olden days and their skills [A and Y]. 

5.     Lamon tells story of the Pan pipe.  Pan half-goat, half man, syrinx hides in reeds; he couldn’t find her, cut the reeds, put them together into a pipe.  [removes tragic element of metamorphosis from story]

6.     Philetas playing panflute – description 66

7.    http://www.panflutejedi.com/Music/Seraglio.mp3

J.     piety and guardianship: the nymphs and pan—pantheism; nature worship

1.     pan, dionysus, the nymphs—gods of pastoral

III.  The pastoral of youth

B.    Nostalgia, Aristophanes’ myth, herders=preagricultural

C.    Innocence and Experience—Blake’s Songs—cf. Multimedia blake

IV.  Innocence and Eros

A.    Babies p.21 Children;

1.     romanticism; wordsworth

a)    http://cla.calpoly.edu/~smarx/courses/253/Splendor/ode.html

2.    contrast to Medea and chorus 5 1064-1089 (p. 717-18)

a)    The childless, who never discover/whether children turn out as a good thing/or as something to cause pain are spared/many troubles in lacking this knowledge

b)    Those who have in their homes the sweet presence of children…are all wasted away by their worries  1074

c)    Even if they turn out good, death will away with your children’s bodies…this most terrible grief of all 1088  NB

B.    Virgin adolescents; fruehlingserwachen

1.     The book from Barron’s bookstore—privately printed 1957—Daphnis’ age--15

2.     Pastoral sexuality=courtship, foreplay, wonder and ignorance

a)     Nature and love

(1)  Eden, song of songs
(2)  everything at its best….you would have thought the very streams were singing as they gently flowed along, that the winds were making music as they breathed among the pines, that the apples were dropping on to the ground because they were in love, and that the sun was making everybody undress because he loved to see beauty”  34-5   [reverdie, pathetic fallacy, humor, buildup to humor and pathos—older perspective, voyeuristic  pleasure—the painting]

b)    locus amoenus and Eros

(1)  Philetas.  Fully experienced.  Describes garden he’s created—flowers and fruits, and birds. 
(2)  Tells of finding little mischievous boy in garden and chasing him and being unable to catch him, and the boy “charmed  away my anger.” Boy is older than time and the universe.  He  gave Amaryllis to Philetas when he was young; “now its D and C I’m looking after” 47
(3)  They ask what love is.  He instructs: Love is a god—delights in youth [Agathon] and pursues beauty [Socrates] and gives wings to the soul…greater than Zeus…flowers are all love’s handework. These trees are his creations  [Eryximachus]…the only remedies are kissing and embracing and lying down together with naked bodies” 48  By process of elimination they decide to try Philetas’ remedies.
(4)  Is this the vulgar or the higher aphrodite—how would socrates-diotima regard it

c)     Chloe’s experience of his body—washing p. 26

(1)  Love made something flare up
(a)   she wolf was carrying off animals to feed her cubs…  Daphnis chases goat pursuing one with broken horn and with it falls in.
(b)  They go to nymph sanctuary and he washes in spring—Chloe finds his body beautiful; washes his back and finds flesh soft and yielding, also finds her own flesh soft too.  She wants to see him washing again.  26
(c)   Chloe finds him beautiful when he pipes to the goats, thought beauty caused by the music; persuades him to have another wash. 
(d)  Never heard the world ‘love. ’ I don’t know what’s wrong—Daphnis’ beauty hurts her—“if only I were his pipe, so that he’d breathe into me.   She tried to find a name for love

d)    Opposite to experience and age

(1)  Dorcon who knows the word and the feeling, but the unknown quality—lack of knowledge; power of experience 28, 30 (the beard)
(2)  Older women go after D. [like Dorcas after Chloe]  “which  excited him and annoyed Chloe.”Men go after her; they both want to go back to usual surroundings, away from “discordant shouts” [too innocent for adult pleasures]
(3)   Gnathon’s lust and Lampis jealousy

e)     Reader’s pleasure can be either innocent or experienced

(1)  Anticipatory or Voyeurisic
(2)  recollection of what’s forever lost

C.    Transition at end of Book 2

1.     after drinking wine which heated their blood

2.     Oaths of eternal fidelity—central reference point for past and future p. 68

V.    Experience—Book 3 and 4

A.    Winter: everything froze solid; Daphnis’ deviousness

B.    Violence and blood—the pirates, the Methymneans—struggle as coming of age

C.    Erotic initiation-- between the kiss and the consummation

1.     Bildungsroman; coming of age; love and sex at the center of the process losing innocence—potential—and gaining knowledge--actualization and self realization

2.     Spring—learning about sex

a)     They go out—Pan by the pine, the nymphs in the cave, under the oak together; collecting flowers, first fruits of pan pipe, birds start singing “as if they were gradually remembering the tune after their long silence

b)    Sheep bleating, and nursing, rams and he goats chasing the girls  77  It was a sight caluclated to turn even an old man’s thoughts to love.  D and C set on fire after long winter

c)     D asks C to lie down naked and do what rams and and he goats do [natural: birds and bees] “apparantly what they do is something very sweet which takes away the bitterness of love”

d)    He didn’t know what to do, even tried from behind, he’s baffled and cries “to think that any sheep knew more about love than he did”  78 humor based on his ignorance and our knowledge

e)     Lycaenion, an older woman, whose name means “wolf” desires Daphnis.  She lies to her husband about visiting a friend and then lures Daphnis into the woods to “rescue  her goose” She lies to Daphnis saying that she had heard about his frustration from the Nymphs and offers to TEACH him what he needs to know. “He behaved exactly as if he had been about to receive some great revelation from a god” 80

f)     Description of her “deftly guided him into thepassage that he had been trying so long to find…Nature herself taught Daphnis all that remained to be done.”  

g)    She tells him about the pain and blood of losing virginity and advises Daphnis to take Chloe far into the woods

h)    Daphnis’s hesitation—blood and pain and consequence for the woman—man’s gain is woman’s loss—further deferral

D.   End of Book 3: They find tree with perfect apple at the top—the perfectly ripe one.  “Perhaps this beautiful apple was being kept in reserve for some shepherd who is in love.”  She discourages him from climbing so high, but does so and gives it to her with elegant triumphant speech. 93 

1.     QUESTION—What is the apple?  

E.    Book 4: Discovering Identity

1.     Social position, connection to past and future, out of timeless pastoral

2.     They go back to the country.  Their wedding “a  pastoral affair.” 120  Everybody invited even Lampis, who was forgiven…as long as they lived they spent most of their time in pastoral pursuits and suckled their children by goats and sheep and they grew old together 

3.     QUESTION: Why does this foreshadowing of their whole future life for the first time interrupt the rigid chronology of the narrative?

4.     How does the sexual consummation make for the ending ? 

5.     Escorted to bridal chamber.  “For Daphnis did some of the things that Lycaenion had taught him; and then for the first time Chloe realized that what had taken place on the edge of the wood had been nothing but childish play.”  121

VI.         Artificiality or conventionality about naturalness—back to pastoral

A.   Versailles; traditionality of the term

B.    Mixture of wild and cultivated flowers and trees

1.     “Though it had happened naturally this too gave the impression of having been done on purpose” 95-6

C.    see Ecphrasis in Prologue—detachment and

1.     Painting told a love story—most beautiful thing I have ever seen

2.     Excellent technique with romantic subject

a)     Women having babies

b)    Exposing babies!

c)     Sheep and goats suckling them

d)    Shepherds picking them up…

3.     Decorative or pictorial; picturesque—symmetry: quilt or stained glass

4.     Disney—sentimentality, sensuality, child-adult, almost cartoon

D.   Style: conscious balance and deliberate simplicity

1.     Goats and sheep—the pine and the cave

2.     They were tired and slept well because of fatigue; awoke the next day and both were delighted when seeing one another and miserable apart.  “All they knew was this: that a kiss had proved fatal to Daphnis, and a wash to Chloe.  34

E.    Stories within stories—echo and mirror

1.     D. tells story while listen to wood-pigeon—cowherd girl and boy having singing contest

2.     Celebration of Chloe’s return; the panpipe

a)     Dryas does dance mimicing the harvest; D+C dance based on Lamon’s story—art show; performances—description of dance retells the story with Daphnis playing Pan and Chloe playing Syrinx, story of creation of the musical instrument that creates the story; kisses “Chloe as warmly as if she had run away in earnest and he had found her again” 67

F.    Longus longs to write verbal equivalent—“source of pleasure for the human race—something to heal the sick and comfort the afflicted, to refresh the memory of those who have been in love and educate those who have not.  For no one has ever escaped Love altogether…But as for me I hope that the god will allow me to write of other people’s experiences, while retaining my own sanity”

G.   Imitation and art in relation to life—especially this part of life.